Immutable Classes

To create an immutable class following steps should be followed:"

  • Create a final class.
  • Set the values of properties using constructor only.
  • Make the properties of the class final and private
  • Do not provide any setters for these properties.
  • If the instance fields include references to mutable objects, don’t allow those objects to be changed
  • Don’t provide methods that modify the mutable objects.
  • Don’t share references to the mutable objects. Never store references to external, mutable objects passed to the constructor; if necessary, create copies, and store references to the copies. Similarly, create copies of your internal mutable objects when necessary to avoid returning the originals in your methods.
  • Since the state of the immutable objects cannot be changed once they are created they are automatically synchronized/thread-safe.
  • All wrapper classes in java.lang are immutable – String, Integer, Boolean, Character, Byte, Short, Long, Float, Double, BigDecimal, BigInteger
  • The best use of the immutable objects is as the keys of a map.

You May Also Enjoy

Defensive Copies

Immutable Classes

Serial Version UID

Atomic Operations!

Thread Locals


Dialogue & Discussion